1. What three systems have historically provided humans their food supply?

2. Was Malthus right re food supply?

3. How much food will be needed by 2050 (in relation to the amount of food produced since the agricultural revolution)?

4. Of the 30,000 plants with edible parts how many are used along with a few animals to provide 90% of our food?

5. How many terrestrial animals?

6. What is the difference between?

1.        industrialized agriculture,  

2.        plantation agriculture,  

3.        traditional subsistence agriculture  --

4.        traditional intensive agriculture  --

5.        monoculture  -

6.        polyculture --

7.        shifting cultivation - s

 7. What happened in the first green revolution? When did it occur? And where? 

8. What happened in the second green revolution? When did it start? Where?

9. What factors contributed to the increases in yields brought about by these revolutions?

10. What is the biggest industry in the US?

11. In 1900 it took one farmer in the US to feed____ while today one farmer feeds__

12. What % of the US GNP is generated by agriculture?

13. What % of commercial energy is used by US agriculture?

14. The US food industry uses ___ units of fossil fuel energy to produce one unit of food energy.

15. In intensive traditional  agriculture one unit of energy in gives  units of food energy out.

16. How far does the average food in the US travel?

17. From 1950-1990 how much did average food prices drop?

18. Since when has grain production and amount of grain per capita declined?

19. How many people could the world support if everyone had the same diet (30-40%animal products) as in the developed countries?     

20. How many people in developing countries suffer from insufficient food?

21. How many people in developed nations overeat?

22. What % of US adult population is overweight?   Obese?  

23. What is the difference between?

                Under-nutrition and malnutrition  

                Marasmus and Kwashiorkor  

                Micronutrient and macronutrient  needed in small quantities  vs. needed in comparitively large quantities

24. Explain the cycle of malnutrition/poverty? 

25. What are three most common micronutrient deficiencies and what are their symptoms?


26. How much would it costs per year/child to prevent those deficiencies? Less than $10.

27. What is the principle cause of hunger and malnutrition?

28. What is the #1 cause of preventable deaths in the US?      #2?     

29. Do we produce enough food to meet every ones basic nutritional needs?  yes - it is just not  distributed to where it needs to go.

30. How many people die of starvation? None, they die of various diseases due to a weakened immune system.

31. What are the major environmental effects of food production as far as ? 

Biodiversity Loss


Air Pollution

Water pollution



32. What are the advantages and disadvantages of crossbreeding and genetic engineering to increase crop production?  Some people are scared of GMOs - but the GMOs are more productive .

33. What limits the green revolution? $$$$

34. Why is adding more cropland not a good solution to food problems?                 .What about urban gardens? Large potential

35. What about increasing the amount of irrigation?  

36. What about using more rangeland to produce more meat?      What are the conditions of our rangelands?  

37. What are the environmental consequences of meat production?    How much manure is produce by US livestock?      How much methane gas is belched out?


 38. What animals are the most efficient of converting grain to meat?     Least?  

39. How are most chickens and hogs raised in the US? in cages

What is microlivestock?    What are some examples? locusts, grasshoppers, ants, grubs

40. What problems are there with catching more fish/shell fish to solve food problems? overfishing has resulted in declines of many fish populations and water has become polluted.

                How much more does it take to catch fish than they make?    Who pays for the difference?                                       

41. What is sustainable yield?  Not harvesting faster then the fish can reproduce and grow.

42. What is the difference between commercial extinction and extinction? Commercial extinction occurs when it costs more to find and catch tem than they can be sold for.  With extinction they are gone forever.

43. What is aquaculture?   Are there any problems with it? Disease more easily spread. Waste products build up.

44. What are the main organisms raised in aquaculture systems?  

 45. What is bycatch? (Organisms caught by fisherman that are not specifically being fished for such as dolphins, sea turtles. )

 46. What is a pesticide?   Why is a more apt name for them biocides?  

                What different kinds of pesticides are there? 

47. Who is the person given credit for sounding the alarm re pesticides?   

48. What was the name of the book she wrote in 1962 that kicked of the environmental movement?  

49. What are the advantages of using pesticides?

50. What % of the world’s food supply is lost to pests?  up to 55%

51. What are the major problems associated with the use of pesticides?

                How much pesticides are used on city lawns versus that in agriculture?

52. What is the pesticide treadmill?

                How many agriculture workers are affected by pesticides every year?

53. Why do we still get food contaminated with pesticides in the US even when their use is banned there? US chemical companies  still make them and sell them to other countries that don't ban them.

54. What are some alternatives to pesticides to rid agriculture of pests?

55. What is a pheromone?

56. Why are some people leery of gamma radiation as a food preservative?

57. What is integrated pest management (IPM?)

57. Has pesticide use increased crop yields or have they made the problem worse? in most cases it has made the situation worse because they kill off the pests natural predators and have artificially selected for resistance.

58. What  agricultural systems have reached or are near their limits? All of them.