Published Works

Co-authored paper, "Design Considerations for Distance Education in a Global Environment," was selected to be published on the University of Michigan, Dearborn, School of Education Website.


The concept of distance learning has been around for over a century. From its inception over a century ago, it has evolved from a concept limited to correspondence courses to the current applications of videoconferencing and Internet based. The current iteration of distance learning involves not only the mode of delivery but the move toward instruction based on theories of adult learning; the student as a learner and the teacher as a facilitator of that learning. A challenge for modern day designers is to involve the distance learner in a more interactive environment and to work around limitations, such as the lack of visual cues, in this type of delivery.

In addition to the strengths and weakness found in the current reality of distance learning, the designer and the facilitator of learning need to be aware of and responsive to cultural differences of the learners. This paper discusses the history and current environment, and the cultural considerations essential to, the design, implementation, and delivery of distance learning. (Recently removed)


Co-authored paper, "The Impact of Teaching Strategies on Intrinsic Motivation," was published by the U.S. Educational Research Information Clearinghouse (#ED 418925).

This paper examines intrinsic motivation by reviewing various motivational theories and models and discussing whether research supports the hypothesis that teaching strategies can influence intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation, also known as self-motivation, refers to influences that originate from within a person which cause a person to act or learn. This includes self-concept, self-esteem, self-satisfaction, personal values, and personal/emotional needs and drives. The paper focuses on the theories and models of Biddle, Goudas, and Underwood (1995); Hancock (1995); Keller (1979); Bohlin, Milheim, and Viechnicki (1993); and Bandura (1986) and Pajares (1996), noting the various concepts developed to explain their theories and models. Teaching strategies to support the various concepts are suggested as ways to impact intrinsic motivation in the learner. Various components or concepts of intrinsic motivation revealed through the research include autonomy, expectancy, instrumentality, effort, interest, satisfaction, valence, relevance, and self-efficacy. In examining these concepts and the teaching strategies associated with them, it was determined that specific teaching strategies can have a positive effect on the various concepts related to intrinsic motivation. Teachers must be aware of strategies that will positively affect motivation, using an approach that reinforces student willingness and enthusiasm.

Copies can be obtained from ERIC